Palmitic acid induces production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α via a NF-κB-dependent mechanism in HaCaT keratinocytes.
To research whether or not palmitic acid will be answerable for the induction of inflammatory processes, HaCaT keratinocytes have been handled with palmitic acid at pathophysiologically related concentrations. Secretion ranges of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β), NF- κ B nuclear translocation, NF- κ B activation, Stat3 phosphorylation, and…Read More
Metformin inhibits cholesterol‑induced adhesion molecule expression via activating the AMPK signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells
Recruitment of lymphocytes to the vascular wall contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). The expression of mobile adhesion molecules, comparable to vascular cell adhesion molecule‑1 and intercellular adhesion molecule‑1, serves a crucial function in mediating lymphocyte adhesion to the vascular wall. Ldl cholesterol loading induces the expression of adhesion molecules in vascular easy muscle cells (VSMCs),…Read More